The European Journal of Humour Research <p>The EJHR is an open-access, academic journal published by <a title="Tertium" href=""><strong>Cracow Tertium Society for the Promotion of Language Studies</strong> </a>and endorsed by <a href="">The International Society for Humor Studies (ISHS)</a>. The EJHR publishes full research articles, shorter commentaries, which discuss ground-breaking or controversial areas, research notes, which provide details on the research project rationale, methodology and outcomes, as well as book reviews. The journal has a special focus on supporting PhD students and early career researchers by providing them with a forum within which to disseminate their work alongside established scholars and practitioners.</p> <p>The EJHR welcomes submissions that combine research and relevant applications as well as empirical studies detailing their usefulness to the study of humour. All contributions received (apart from book reviews) undergo a double-blind, peer-review process. In addition to established scholars within humor research, we invite those as yet unfamiliar with (or wary of) humor research to enter the discussion, especially based on less known or less covered material. The elaboration of joint methodological frameworks is strongly encouraged. For further details or inquiries you may contact the Editors.</p> <p>No charges are applied either for submitting, reviewing or processing articles for publication. </p> <p>The journal is now listed in important international <a href="">indexing bases</a> including <a href="">Scopus</a> and Scimago ranking :</p> <p><a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0" /></a> </p> <div style="height: 100px; width: 180px; font-family: Arial, Verdana, helvetica, sans-serif; background-color: #ffffff; display: inline-block;"> <div style="padding: 0px 16px;"> <div style="padding-top: 3px; line-height: 1;"> <div style="float: left; font-size: 28px;"><span id="citescoreVal" style="letter-spacing: -2px; display: inline-block; padding-top: 7px; line-height: .75;">0.8</span></div> <div style="float: right; font-size: 14px; padding-top: 3px; text-align: right;"><span id="citescoreYearVal" style="display: block;">2021</span>CiteScore</div> </div> <div style="clear: both;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 3px;"> <div style="height: 4px; background-color: #dcdcdc;"> <div id="percentActBar" style="height: 4px; background-color: #007398; width: 72%;"> </div> </div> <div style="font-size: 11px;"><span id="citescorePerVal">72nd percentile</span></div> </div> <div style="font-size: 12px; text-align: right;">Powered by <img style="width: 50px; height: 15px;" src="" alt="Scopus" /></div> </div> </div> <p>This publication is supported by the <a href="">CEES</a> and ELM <a href="">Scholarly Press.</a></p> <p><img src="" alt="" width="300" height="118" /> <img src="" alt="" width="300" height="135" /></p> Cracow Tertium Society for the Promotion of Language Studies en-US The European Journal of Humour Research 2307-700X All authors agree to an Attribution Non-Commercial Non Derivative Creative Commons License on their work. Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> Arie Sover Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 218 219 Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> Anna Piata Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 220 224 Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> Liat Steir-Livny Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 225 229 Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> David Orlov Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 230 234 Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> Margherita Dore Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 235 239 Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> Janetta Davies Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 240 241 Book review <p><em>Book review</em></p> Dafina Ivanova Genova Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 242 247 Ten years of the European Journal of Humour Research <p><em>This article marks the first decade of the European Journal of Humour Research. We wish to thank all our Authors and Editorial Team members – Editorial Assistants, members of the International Editorial Board, and Reviewers from all over the world, who have been working hard for many years – all pro bono publico. We welcome new contributors and collaborators in the coming decade.</em></p> Dorota Brzozowska Władysław Chłopicki Anna Stwora Villy Tsakona Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 1 2 Antiracism in Othello sketch comedy, 1967-1999 <p><em>Despite Shakespeare’s rejection of comic, racist stereotypes in Othello, minstrel shows offered racist blackface caricatures of slaves and others of African descent that filtered through British Music Hall and Variety to television sketch comedy. Analyses of twenty-five screened appropriations of Othello provide a cultural history of racism for 1967-1999. The article recovers an antiracist tradition overlooked in comedy studies. </em></p> Stephen Hamrick Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 3 21 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.596 Lexico-semantic means of pun creation in Spanish jokes about La Gomera by Caco Santacruz <p><em>The research note deals with the analysis of lexico-semantic means used in the creation of the pun, such as homonymy, polysemy, and also morphological and syntactical means including re-grouping of syllables inside the phrase. Research material comprises puns by the Spanish author Caco Santacruz about the inhabitants of La Gomera Island. </em></p> <p><em>The aim of the article is to reveal lexico-semantic ways of creation of the author’s jokes based on the use of the pun. Therefore, the definition of the pun in multilingual resources has been analysed. To reveal the ambiguity, the context in which the pun is used is needed, which we define as a communicative situation of ambiguity created by the author to reach the humorous effect.</em></p> <p><em>Most of the analysed jokes contain a dialogue of two people who understand the meaning of the phrase in their own way, creating imaginary misunderstanding based on polysemy or homonymy. The regrouping of syllables and polysemic grammatical meaning of prepositions are among the morphological and syntactical means of pun creation. The means of making a pun used by Santacruz include</em><em>s</em><em> pseudo-words, based on the creation of new words on the analogy of word-formation to reach the humorous effect.</em></p> <p><em>Future studies of the use of the pun as a source of humour may be focused on the analysis of linguistic means of pun creation on the material of other European languages in order to reveal the common patterns of pun creation and differences, conditioned by linguistic peculiarities of the correspondent language systems. The term ‘pun context’ may be applied to further studies of ambiguity created by the author</em><em>.</em></p> Lyubov Bobchynets Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 22 28 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.1.638 Hideous or hilarious? The fine line between disgust and humour <em>The article compares disgust as defined by the Parasite Avoidance Theory and humour explained through the Benign Violation Theory in order to analyse whether their affinity could be explained by analogous evolutionary conditioning. Both disgust and humour can be seen as specific, involuntary reactions toward particular triggers, and both may be connected with certain types of violations, particularly violations of body and violations of social norms. Moreover, disgust-sensitivity and humour-sensitivity are assumed to be largely dependent on personal circumstances and thus very difficult to predict before exposure to triggers. According to these theories, the fundamental difference between disgust and humour is that while the success of the latter is predicated on its benignness, the former must necessarily appear malignant enough to elicit the desired effect. The final part of the article is a case study of a “disgusting” joke by British comedian Jimmy Carr, in which various violations recognised by PAT and BVT are analysed.</em> Justyna Jajszczok Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 29 36 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.1.618 Ambivalent laughter: the key to preserving playtime <p><em>Arguments over the future of school playtime continue back and forth. Opinions range from the interval period envisaged as a waste of teaching and learning time to sentiments supporting a child’s right to free play. Neither view, however, addresses the principal issue.</em></p> <p><em>If all laughter is ambivalent, which is the issue proposed here, then the central means by which pupils communicate on the primary school playground cannot be an indication of their contentment alone. The double, contradictory nature of ambivalency means that pupils’ laughter can also be an indication of their unhappiness. Playtime’s substantially serious dimension, therefore, invalidates any claims that playtime is simply a frivolous occasion and therefore expendable.</em></p> <p><em>Mikhail Bakhtin’s work on the language of relationships and on ambivalent laughter provides this qualitative study with the fresh insights that can make a positive contribution to the ongoing playtime debate.</em></p> Michael Nugent Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 37 49 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.1.634 Ain’t that funny? A jurisprudential analysis of humour in Europe and the U.S. <p><em>This paper provides a legislative and jurisprudential comparative of European and U.S. case Law on humour. Whilst the Europe-U.S. comparison, in the ambit of expression, has been looked at extensively, there has yet to be a focus on the varying ways in which humour is treated in the two spheres. What will become evident is the intricacy of cultivating just legal tests to be used by the judiciary in deciphering an inherently abstract theme. At the core of these tests at the European level, is a balancing exercise between the right to offend and the right to be free from offence. However, the multitude of available interpretative routes, in addition to the array of differing human responses to humour, renders such tests and their application legally fragile. This reality raises concerns vis-à-vis the fundamental right of freedom of expression and becomes particularly topical within the current digital age and the ‘polarizing dynamics of social media.’ Godioli (2020:1) The analysis will demonstrate that humour receives much greater protection in the U.S. Framework due to the First Amendment whereas the highest regional human rights court in Europe, namely the European Court of Human Rights is quick to limit humorous speech on grounds of offending others, thereby demonstrating a backsliding of the fundamental freedom of expression, including humorous expression in the region.</em></p> Natalie Alkiviadou Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 50 61 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.1.649 The role of humour in tourism discourse <p><em>This paper focuses on the role of humour as a persuasive tool of tourism destinations' communication and as a means of creating the destination’s image and uniqueness in tourism discourse. According to Aristotle’s appeals, humour belongs to pathos, which is - besides ethos and logos – an essential means of persuasion in successful communication. In the introductory part, the paper offers a short theoretical insight into the functions of tourism discourse and the role of humour in it, further on some examples of online promotional texts about Montenegro are analysed and discussed using discourse analysis. The results, presented in the conclusion, confirm that successful promotion can only occur through the efficient use of tourism discourse which addresses the needs of potential tourists and that humorous texts about destinations are appealing to readers. Based on the analysis, it can be established that branding of tourism destinations, products and services with elements of humour may be outstanding in positive ways, and consequently employed in promotional texts as a successful means of communication.</em></p> Jasna Potočnik Topler Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 62 75 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.1.639 Humour of religious satire and linguistic dexterity of Nigerian stand-up comedy <p><em>Stand-up comedy, as a humorous performance, is a quintessential narrative that chronicles sociological realities of human endeavours. Its humour, as a new subgenre of comedy, fused the roles of performers and their audiences in a scintillating way that provokes laughter and, at the same time, gives great excitement. The performers and their audiences are major stakeholders in the performativity of stand-up comedy. Existing scholars have largely examined its realities as a product of entertainment and laughter to the neglect of its deeper sociological realities of religious satire and linguistic dexterity. Therefore, this paper investigates how stand-up humour serves as a tool for critiquing societal foibles of religious gullibility and bewitchment within the Nigerian socio-political space. Besides, the paper examines the linguistic techniques employed by the selected stand-up comedians. This is in a bid to show how stand-up comedians serve as gatekeepers, watchdogs, and social critics of their societies through their humour. Schechner’s Performance, Freudian, and Jungian psychoanalytic theories were used to analyse the embodied behaviours of the stand-up comedians. Three digital discs of live performance recordings were purposively selected. They were: Halleluyan Volume 1 and Ward 2 Comedy Klinic by Godwin Komone Gordons and A Nite of a Thousand Laughs Vol. 13 by Francis Agoda (I Go Dye). The selected live recordings were based on informing religious realities, choice of satiric humour, and performative styles of the performers. Data were subjected to performance and literary analyses.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Idowu James Adekunle Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 76 87 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.611 Pun-based jokes and linguistic creativity: designing 3R-module <p><em>The development of creativity becomes a significant issue in the era of automation and information technologies. Linguistic creativity can increase the inventiveness and resourcefulness of the representatives of philological professions. We consider humour as a tool that helps to develop personal creativity. Verbal play as a form of humour is considered as one of the ways to improve linguistic creativity. The 3L-course of linguistic creativity is aimed at developing lingual, localisation &amp; translation, and literary creativity. The 3L-course includes 3R-module designed to improve the ability to recognise, reproduce in another language, and recreate pun-based linguistic inventions and innovations. The 3R-module tasks are based: on the similarity of activity, the similarity of the modality of the stimulus material, the number of languages, and the types of language units. The 3R-module involves the 3T-stage model (transparency, training, and testing).</em></p><p><em>The 3S-test based on sense-finding, solution-finding, and scope-finding tasks revealed that the combination of 3R-module with the 3T-stage model in the scope of the 3L-course would help improve the quantity and quality of ideas and avoid stalemates when creating linguistic inventions. </em></p><p><em>The 3L-course can be useful for philological students, writers, translators, journalists, copywriters, native and foreign language teachers because it helps improve personal creativity and productivity.</em></p> Elena Aleksandrova Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 88 107 10.7592/EJHR.2022.10.1.622 Joke identification, comprehension and appreciation by Spanish intermediate ESL learners: an exploratory study <p><em>This paper reports on an exploratory study examining joke identification, appreciation and comprehension by Spanish intermediate ESL learners. The study is based on a relevance-theoretic classification of jokes, which assumes that humorousness results from manipulation of three parametres: make-sense frames, cultural information and utterance interpretation. It firstly ascertains whether Spanish ESL learners recognise orally-delivered samples of seven types of purportedly jocular texts. Secondly, it examines whether these learners actually regard such texts as comical and why. Finally, it looks into the learners’ interpretative problems in order to single out which joke type(s) is/are more challenging. The study relies on quantitative and qualitative data elicited through an online questionnaire comprising four tasks. The results indicate no correlation between joke identification and appreciation, and independence of successful joke recognition from sophisticated interpretative skills. Jokes involving invalidation of an activated make-sense frame were most easily identified and found most funny, but jokes exploiting cancellation of an initial, seemingly plausible, interpretation posed more difficulties.</em></p> Santiago Arróniz Parra Manuel Padilla Cruz Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 108 133 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.633 “Kwatakwata by June diεε…” <p><em>The first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic has been described as stressful. People make light of stressful situations in different ways. Ghanaians are known to be able to make humour out of any situation. During the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, Ghanaians shared memes and posters on social media, making light of the seriousness of the problem. "Kwatakwata by June diεε…" shortened from the phrase: "kwatakwata by June diεε na obiara awu" to wit "Latest by June, we will all be dead" has become a catchphrase on social media and the streets of Ghana to make fun of the serious impact of the virus. This current study examines internet humour that became popular with Ghanaians during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ghana. We examined videos, memes, and posters from various social media sites to learn about the Ghanaian use of humour during a public health crisis. Content analysis of the data showed that Ghanaians created humorous content to express how they felt about what was going on and also educate citizens about the pandemic. Recurring themes within the content analysis include humour concerning death, isolation, and keeping children occupied. We note that Ghanaians largely used self-enhancing humour. We discuss these themes to show the types of internet humour Ghanaians shared during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.</em></p> Lillian Phillips-Kumaga Rachael Hansen-Garshong Christian Kobina Ackom Charity Ama Teku Annabella Osei-Tutu Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 134 146 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.600 “Happy wives” and “sad husbands” <p><em>The COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic (a global health emergency) following its ravaging spread and increasing death toll that led to the unprecedented multi-sectoral crisis and collateral damage. These, and the non-discovery of reliable therapeutic medicines combined to generate rising fears and tension across the globe. To cope with these realities, discourse participants devised humorous expressions to create laughter, ease tension and melt fears. The paper seeks to examine the contextual usage of such humorous expressions used in Nigeria, particularly in Calabar, that denote the sociolinguistic milieu, and shared knowledge and experience of the interactants. The study adopts Relief and Encryption Theories of Humour because the theories account for the situational appropriateness of the humorous expressions as “coping devices” in coherence with the cognitive, linguistic, situational and social contexts. Data were generated by means of participant observation in on-site and virtual interactions in social media platforms. Findings show that COVID-19 pandemic has exerted irresistible pressure on language resources that stimulated the creation of humorous expressions as coping needs for the consequential circumstance. Specifically, the humorous expressions such as “happy wives”, “sad husbands”, “side chicks are hungry” among others were regularly and contextually deployed for comic reliefs and cognitive recreations to stimulate laughter in crisis. Linguistically, the expressions are devised English structures and other constructs with codemixed elements derived from the registers of several discourse domains that reflect the Nigerian sociolinguistic environment. The constructs are therefore modelled to demystify the pandemic and unify interactants in order to ease tension and cope with the realities of the preventive and survival protocols.</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> God'sgift Ogban Uwen Godwin Oko Ushie Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 147 167 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.612 Stereotyping Arab women in jokes circulated on social media during the coronavirus crisis <p><em>Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in late 2019, fear and panic dominated the content of online news. Simultaneously, there was a prevalence of jokes and satire on the different social media sites. During the crisis, most Arab countries went through a nationwide lockdown for weeks that people found themselves trapped in their homes and resorted to social media to express their frustrations about the prevailing happenings. They began exchanging jokes and parodies on social media that indirectly reflected stereotypes about them. 1424 jokes were collected from Facebook and WhatsApp messages during a period of three months and were categorized based on the themes they covered. Gender-related jokes ranked the highest, and were predominantly targeting women. Hence, this study is an attempt to explore how Arab Women were stereotyped in Jokes circulated on social media during the Coronavirus crisis. The 508 gender-related jokes were analysed in light of the General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH). The analysis generated 4 main themes, namely 'marital relations' (33%), 'habits and attributes' (26%), 'beauty and makeup' (23%) and 'violence' (18%). Women were stereotyped as being ugly and less feminine without makeup, talkative, shopaholic, despising and annoying wives, and violent and harmful partners in their private sphere. The study concludes that such negative stereotypes might be unintentionally produced and reinforced through laughter-eliciting humor that circulates fast in the virtual world.</em></p> Ahmad S. Haider Linda S. Al-Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 168 185 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.569 The use of humour in medical education: students’ perspective <p><em>In early 20<sup>th </sup>century, Sir William Osler supported the use of humour as an efficacious tool in medical education, which continues to be used today. Despite the abundance of literature delineating this important role, it is often overlooked among medical students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was planned where a total of 295 medical students from the pre-clerkship and clerkship phases at Beirut Arab University Faculty of Medicine were included in the study. A questionnaire was distributed among the participants assessing their perception on the use of humour in medical education. Data were collected, entered, and analysed on SPSS software version 23.1. Results with p-value &lt; 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The majority of participants agreed to the implementation of humour in medical education. They supported different forms of humour to be used, and considered mockery, sarcasm, the instructor appearing as a performer, and humour that is irrelevant to the course as inappropriate. Inappropriate humour distracts attention and disrupts the formal atmosphere. Our findings suggest that medical students’ opinions on using humour in medical education are supportive. The findings of this study might be of benefit to assist teachers in using humour to improve the attendance and interest of the students in the class and create an environment conducive to optimal student learning.</em></p> Rim Taleb Hadi Itani Sanaa Itani Rayane Salameh Aya Ramadan Khaled Sidani Copyright (c) 2022 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 186 198 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.637 Translating humorous literature from Vietnamese into Italian language: an empirical study of humour reception <p><em>The empirical study presented in this article aims to determine some of the linguistic and cultural elements that can influence the production process and the reception of humour and to verify the applicability of the General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH) to humorous literary translation. 60 Vietnamese and 60 Italian participants had to read and rate the level of humorousness of excerpts taken from the Vietnamese novel Số Đỏ (Vũ Trọng Phụng, 1936) and its correspondent Italian translation (Il gioco indiscreto di Xuan, 2012). By comparing their feedback, it was possible to observe that one is more likely to appreciate humour when one is not part of the categories subject to ridicule/irony/satire; and that a direct contact with the original language and culture constitutes an important role in humour understanding and appreciating. Also, a comparison between the rating that the Italian participants assigned to the official Italian translation and an alternative version allowed us to analyze the role of Language Knowledge Resource (GTVH). According to the Italian participants, although the two versions of the translation, which share the first five levels of Knowledge Resources, were remarkably similar (as predicted by the GTVH), they were dissimilar in terms of humour and in readers' preferences. I therefore argue that, although the GTVH is a useful tool for analyzing and verifying the similarity between the source and target text, it has proved to be impractical and not always reliable if we want to use it as a parameter of the translation of literary humorous texts.</em></p> Thuy Hien Le Copyright (c) 2021 The European Journal of Humour Research 2022-04-14 2022-04-14 10 1 199 217 10.7592/EJHR2022.10.1.615